Ramuwar Azumin Ramadan

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Ramuwar Azumin Ramadan – Dukkanin wanda Azumin watan Ramadana ya kubce masa bisa dalilai na Shari’a, ramuwa ta wajaba a kansa. Game da ramuwar kuwa, ga yadda abin yake:

1. Ka sani ɗan’uwana, ramuwar azumin da ya kubce na Ramadan ba wajibi ba ne ramawa nan take, babu laifi a jinkirta; saboda abin da ya zo daga Nana A’isha (Radiyallahu Anha) cewa: “Yana kasancewa akwai ramuwar azumin Ramadan a kaina, ba na samun damar ramawa sai a watan Sha’aban”. (Bukhari 4/166, Muslim 1146).

Alhafiz Ibn Hajar yana cewa: “A cikin wannan hadisi akwai dalili a kan halaccin jinkirta ramuwar azumin Ramadan kai tsaye ko da uzuri ko babu”.

Abu ne sananne, babu shakka a kai cewa ramawa take ya fi ramawa da jinkiri, saboda shigar hakan ƙarƙashin ayoyin da suke nuna gaggawa zuwa ga ayyukan alheri da rashin nawa wajen gabatar da su. Allah Maɗaukakin Sarki ya ce: “Ku yi gaggawa zuwa ga gafarar Ubangijinku”. (Aali Imram 133). Da fadin sa: “Waɗannan su ne masu gaggawa cikin alherai kuma masu rige-rige”. (Mu’uminun: 61).

Ba wajibi ba ne a yi ramuwa a jere, saboda Allah ya ce: “A yi ramuwa cikin wasu kwanaki daban”. Abdullahi Ibn Abbas (Radiyallahu Anhu) ya ce: “Babu laifi idan an rarraba”. Abu Huraira (Radiyallahu Anhu) ya ce: “Ya dinga yin sa mara idan ya ga dama”.

2. Malamai sun yi ijma’i kan cewa wanda ya mutu ana bin sa salloli; waliyyinsa ba zai rama masa ba, haka ma waninsa. Haka ma wanda ya kasa azumi babu wanda zai yi masa; matuƙar yana raye sai ya ciyar kowacce rana miskini ɗaya kamar yadda Anas Bin Malik (Radiyallahu Anhu) ya aikata. Sai dai wanda ya mutu ana bin sa azumin bakance; to waliyyinsa zai rama masa dalilin faɗin Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasalam) inda ya ce; “Wanda ya mutu ana bin sa azumi, to waliyyinsa ya yi masa”. (Bukhari 4/168, Muslim 1147).

Bukhari da Muslim sun fitar da wani hadisi daga Abdullahi Ibn Abbas (Radiyallahu Anhu) cewa; wani mutum ya zo wajen Annabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasalam) ya ce; “Ya Manzon Allah, Mahaifiyata ta rasu alhali ana bin ta bashin azumin wata guda, zan iya rama mata? Sai Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasalam) ya ce; “Eh, bashin Allah shi ya fi cancanta da a biya”.

Waɗannan hadisan gamammu ne a zahiri wajen halaccin waliyyi ya yi wa mamaci azumi gaba ɗayan nau’o’in azumin; kuma da wannan wasu malamai cikin Shafi’iyya da Ibn Hazm suka yi fatawa. Sai dai waɗannan hadisan za su iya shiga gamammen da ake keɓancewa; saboda waliyyi ba zai yi wa mamaci azumi ba sai na bakance. Da wannan Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal ya ce; “Ba za a iya wa mamaci azumi ba sai na bakance”. Sai na ce masa; “To ya ya azumin Ramadan? Sai ya ce; “Sai ya ciyar kawai”. (Masa’il na Abu Dawud 96).

Aiki da wannan fatawa shi ne daidai, kuma a nan dalili ke rinjaya; saboda cikinta akwai amfani da gaba ɗaya hadisan da suka zo ba tare da an ki karɓar ko ɗaya daga cikinsu ba, tare da fahimta ingantacciya, musamman hadisin farko; Nana A’isha (Radiyallahu Anha) ba ta fahimci cewa wannan izlaƙin ya game azumin Ramadan da waninsa ba, ita dai ta tafi kan cewa za a ciyar ne. Domin ita ce ta rawaito shi saboda abin da Amrata ta rawaito cewa; “Mahaifiyata ta rasu kuma ana bin ta azumin Ramadan, zan iya rama mata? Sai Nana A’isha ta ce; “A’a, kawai ki yi sadaka muhallin kowanne yini rabin sa’i ga kowane miskini”. (Mushkili Aathar na Zahawiy 3/142).

Abdullahi Ibn Abbas shi ya rarrabe tsakanin azumin bakance da na Ramadan, domin yana ganin idan na bakance ne; za a rama, amma idan na Ramadan ne ciyarwa ta wadatar, kamar yadda ya ce; “Idan mutum ya yi rahin lafiya a watan Ramadan; sannan ya mutu ba tare da ya yi azumi ba, sai a ciyar masa ba sai an rama masa ba”. Amma idan bakance ne sai a rama masa.

Abu ne a zahiri cewa Ibn Abbas (Radiyallahu Anhu); shi ne ya rawaito hadisin da ya gabata, musamman ma kuma ya rawaito wani hadisi wanda a cikinsa akwai nassin cewa waliyyi ya yi wa mamaci azumin bakance, ya ce; “Sa’ad Bn Ubadata (Radiyallahu Anhu) ya tambayi Annabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasalam) cewa: “Mahaifiyata ta rasu ana bin ta azumin bakance? Sai ya ce: “Ka rama mata shi”. (Bukhari da Muslim ne suka rawaito shi).

Wannan rarrabawar shi ne ya fi dacewa da ƙa’idojin shari’a da asalanta kamar yadda Babban Malami Ibn Ƙayyim ya bayyana cikin littafinsa “I’ilaamul Mauƙi’eena”; sannan ya ƙara bayani sosai a cikin littafinsa “Tahzeebi Sunani Abee Daawud”, mujalladi na 3, shafi na 279 – 282.

3. Sannan wanda ya mutu ana bin sa bashin azumin bakance; to ya halasta mutane adadin kwanakin da ake bin sa su yi masa azumin. Hasanul Basri ya ce; “Idan mutane talatin suka yi wa mutum, kowane mutum ya yi na kwana ɗaya, ya isar masa”. Amma ciyarwa idan waliyyinsa ya tattara miskinai adadin kwanakin da ake bin sa ya ciyar da su ya halasta. Haka Anas Bn Malaik (Radiyallahu Anhu) ya aikata. Wallahu a’alam.

Domin karanta cikakken bayani a kan Kaffarar Azumin Ramadan danna nan.

Domin karanta cikakken bayani a kan Ƙara Yawaita Ibadu Da Alhairi A Goman Ƙarshe Na Ramadan danna nan.

Wannan bayanin anciro shine daga Littafin Guziri Ga Mai Azumin Ramadana (Bisa Koyarwar Alƙur’ani Da Sunnah); wanda Ibrahim Baba (Ibrahim Garba Nayaya (Baban Fauzan) ya wallafa shi; Don karanta cikakken Littafin danna nan.

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