Jagoran Noman Shinkafa A Nijeriya

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Gabatarwa

Shinkafa ta kasance ɗaya daga cikin amfanin gona mai matuƙar tasiri da kawo kuɗin shiga ga manoma a Nijeriya. Ta samar da ayyukan yi ga mutane sama da miliyan goma sha biyar (15million) a harkar nomanta da kasuwancinta a Nijeriya. Buƙatar shinkafa ƙara bunƙasa take a kowace shekara a Nijeriya.

Hoto na Farko: Yabannyar Shinkafa.

Yanayin da Shinkafa ke Buƙata domin Samun Amfani mai Yawa

  • Da rana shinkafa na buƙatar yanayin zafi kimanin ma’aunin digri 30°C
  • Amma da daddare shinkafa na buƙatar yanayin zafi kimanin ma’aunin digiri 20°C
  • Shinkafa na buƙatar yanayin zafi kimanin ma’aunin digri 16 – 200C lokacin (ɗaukar ciki) da ta sa bunini da ƙwaya.
  • Amma tana da buƙatar yanayin zafi kimanin ma’aunin digri 18 zuwa 320C lokacin da ƙwayar ta take nuna.
  • Idan ma’aunin yanayin zafi ya wuce kimanin digri 350C to lallai zai shafi saka ƙwayar shinkafa.

Aikace-aikacen Noman Shinkafa

Zaɓan Gona:

  • Ita shinkafa ana iya noma ta a kowace irin ƙasa. Manomi ya zaɓi fili shimfiɗaɗɗe, wanda ba tudu ba gangare; sannan ya kasance mai riƙe ruwa kuma da ƙasa mai ƙarfi da kyau.
Hoto na biyu: Gyaran gona da Tantan
  • Manomi ya sassaɓe ciyayi da tushe-tushe, ya kwashe su a tsakanin watan Nuwamba zuwa Fabrairu; sannan ya yi haro da hannu ko da motar gona wato Tantan (Tarakta) kafin shuka.

Zaɓen Irin Shuka:

  • Zaɓi irin da ya dace da gonarka,  kuma wanda kasuwa ke buƙata. Idan kana shakka to ka tuntuɓi malamin gona na kusa da kai ko ma’aikatar gona; ko kuma kamfanin iri domin samun irin da ya dace da gonarka, kuma wanda kasuwa ke buƙata.

Wankin Iri:

  • Wankin Iri na kare shuka daga cututtuka da ƙwari, sannan yana sanya fitar tsiro da kyau. Ana cakuɗa mudu 4 ko kilo hudu (4) na iri da fakiti ɗaya (10g) na Apron Star 50 DS domin wanke iri.
Hoto na Huɗu: Wankanken Irin Shuka na Shinkafa.

Shuka:

  • Za a iya noma shinkafa har sau uku cikin shekara guda, kuma a gona ɗaya idan akwai ruwa kamar haka.
  • Fabrairu, Maris, Afrilu da Mayu
  • Mayu, Yuni, Yuli da Agusta
  • Agusta, Satumba, Oktoba da Nuwamba
  • A shuka kilo 50-60 a kadaɗa ɗaya idan shukar kai tsaye ce, ko kilo 80 a kadaɗa ɗaya idan yafi za a yi.
  • A shuka ƙwayar shinkafa  biyar ko shida (5-6) a rami mai zurfin sentimeta biyu zuwa huɗu (2-4cm). Kar ya wuce sentimeta biyar (5cm). Sannan a shuka ta a tazarar sentimeta ashirin da biyar (25cm) tsakanin tushe da tushe da kuma layin shuka zuwa layin shuka.
  • Idan dashe za a yi: Ana yin dashe bayan kwana 21 da yafi ko kuma sanda ta fara ganye biyu zuwa shida (2-6) na girma.
  • A dasa silin tsiro 2-3 a rami a bisa tazarar 20cm tsakanin layi, sannan ko sentimeta sha biyar zuwa ashirin  (15-20cm) tsakanin shuka.

Sa Takin Zamani:

  • Amfani da takin gargajiya yana da tasiri a gonar shinkafa wajen haɓaka amfani. Shinkafa tana buƙatar sinadarin Nitrogen sosai.
  • Ana sa takin kamfa buhu huɗu (4) a kowace hekta bayan kwana 10-14 da shuka ko dashe.
  • Ana sa mata urea buhu 2 bayan sati 6 da shuka ko dashe lokacin da za ta fara ƙunsa ciki.
Hoto na Bakwai: Takin Kamfa

Magance Ciyawa:

  • Ciron Ciyawa Ko Noma: Yana da mahimmanci manomin shinkafa ya yi noma ko ciron ciyawa a tsakanin sati 2 zuwa 3 bayan shuka ko dashe da kuma kafin ta fara fitar da kai.
  • Yadda Ake Amfani Da Maganin Ciyawa A Gonar Shinkafa: Idan manomi zai yi amfani da maganin hana ciyawa fitowa, ya yi amfani da butachlor lita 5 a kowace hecta, amma kar ya wuce kwana  biyu da shuka shinkafar ko ya yi amfani da STOM 500e ko OXADIAZON (RONSTAR) lita 3 a hecta 1 wanda ya zaɓa cikin su.
Hoto na Takwas: Feshin maganin Ciyawa

Magance ƘKwari da Cututtuka:

  • Ƙwari: Ƙwari da cututtuka da dama suna addabar gonar shinkafa, don haka ya zama dole manomi ya sanya ido; kuma ya ɗauki mataki da zarar ya ga ƙwari ko wata cuta a gonar shinkafarshi. Ta hanyar yin amfani da magunguna da kuma dabarun noma na zamani domin samun amfanin gona mai yawa da kuma kaucewa asara.

Don Cikakkiyar Kariya daga Cututtukan Shinkafa sai:

  • A yi amfani da ingantaccen irin shuka.
  • A tabbatar da wanke irin kafin shuka.
  • A tabbatar da tsabtar gonar.
  • Da zarar an ga alamar cuta a tushen shinkafa, tuge ta kafitar daga gonar ka
  • A yi amfani da ingantattun magungunan cututtuka da na ƙwari (misali benlate ….)

Girbi

  • Shinkafa tana isa girbine idan tsabar tayi ƙarfi; sannan ta canja launi zuwa ruwan ƙwai ko ruwan ƙasa (Yellow/brown) Kimanin kwanaki 30-45 bayan fure. A wannan lokaci lemar dake jikinta ya kai kamar zuwa kasha ashirin da huɗu cikin ɗari (24%).
Hoto na Tara: Shinkafa da tanuna

Ajiya a cikin ɗaki ko rumbu

  • Ana buƙatar Shinkafar da za a adana ta bushe sosai, ta kai ma’aunin kashi goma cikin ɗari ko ƙasa da haka na laimar dake jikinta.
  • Rumbun (Store) ya kasance a tsaftace kuma a bushe kafin a ajiye shinkafar.
  • Ana buƙatar wajen ajiya a suto ya kasance kar a ajiye shi kai tsaye a ƙasa, kuma ya kasance an raba shi da ƙasa, a ɗora shi a kan katako ko itace.
  • Rumbu ya kasance babu ramukan ɓeraye, sannan kar a jingina shi da bango.

Yawan Amfani da Manomi kan Iya Samu:

  • Manoma na samun kimanin buhu (40-60) a gonanakin fadama ko kuma buhu (30-50) a gonakin tudu.
  • Amma saboda bunƙasar fasaha ta noman zamani, manoma suna samun kimanin buhu 73 a gonar fadama, da kuma yawan buhuna kimanin 37 a gonakin dake tudu mai faɗin kadaɗa ɗaya.

Domin karanta cikakken bayani a kan Jagoran Noman Waken Soya danna nan.

Domin karanta cikakken bayani a kan Yadda Ake Tuwon Shinkafa danna nan.

labarin da ya wuceYadda Ake Addu’ar Sanya Tufafi
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NAERLS na daya daga cikin cibiyoyi 18 na binciken noma na kasa (NARIs) da ke karkashin ma’aikatar noma da raya karkara ta tarayya. Cibiyar tana da alhakin haɓakawa, tattarawa, kimantawa da yada ingantattun sabbin hanyoyin noma da bincike kan hanyoyin haɓakawa da manufofin.