Tarihin Komfiyuta (Computer)

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Fitowa da shaharar komfiyuta (computer) ya fara ne daga shekaru talatin da suka gabata.

Amma idan muka koma baya lokaci mai tsawo, za mu ga cewar komfiyuta (computer) tarihinta ba zai taɓa cika ba;

sai mun koma baya, tun daga shekaru dubu biyu da ɗari biyar lokacin da aka samar da Abacus.

Abacus wani raskwana [calculator] ne da aka yi shi da ‘ya’yan carbi da waya ko igiya wanda yake ba wa mutum damar yin lissafi a cikin sauƙi, bambanci tsakanin Abacus ɗin da aka yi amfani da shi a wancen lokaci, da wanda ake amfani da shi a wannan zamani yana da bambanci mai yawa matuƙa. Amma kuma yadda ake amfani da su domin kawo sauƙi wurin yin lissafi kusan duk abu ɗaya ne.

Cogs da Calculators

Idan muka ce abacus, to za mu iya faɗin cewar ita ce na’urar lissafi wacce a wancen lokacin ake amfani da ita, wacce ake iya kiran ta da komfiyuta (computer) duk da dai a wancan lokacin ba a san wani abu wai computer ba.

An ci gaba da amfani da wannan fasahar zuwa ƙarni na sha bakwai (17th century) inda aka sami wani matashi ɗan shekara sha takwas a wancan lokacin ɗan ƙasar Faransa, masanin kimiya da fasaha a shekara ta 1642 mai suna Blaise Pascal (1623-1666) ya ƙirƙiri na’ura mai aiki da ƙarfe, wacce ake ɗaukar ta a matsayin inji na farko da aka fara amfani da shi a matsayin raskwana (calculator), ya ƙirƙiro wannan na’ura domin ya taimaka wa mahaifinsa a wancan lokacin, wanda yake karɓar kuɗaɗen haraji.

Shi wannan inji wanda yake ba da damar tarawa da debe lambobi ta hanyar amfani da gargare a jikin na’urar. Na’urar wanda aka tsara ta da wasu ƙananan gare-gare a jikinta tare da daka mata ƙarafa da ake juya su domin a fitar da sakamako na lissafi, wanda ake kiran wannan na’urar da ya yi da sunan Pascalline (Faskalain).

Bayan tsawon shekaru, a wuraren shekarar 1671 Gottfried withelm Leibniz (1646-1716) masanin lissafi da falsafa ɗan ƙasar Jamus ya ƙara inganta wannan na’urar ta pascalline amma tare da kara mata abubuwa masu yawa a jikinta. A nashi gyaran da ya yi Leibniz ya canza waɗannan gare-garen (cogs) zuwa wani tsari na ƙarafa masu matakala (stepped drum) wanda su ake murɗawa domin tara lambobin da ake son a yi lissafi a kansu.

Wannan tsari da canji da Leibniz ya kawo, an ɗaɗe ana amfani da shi wanda ya kai tsawon shekaru dari uku ana cin gajiyarsa. Wanda da wannan sababbin ƙare-ƙare da ya yi, mutum zai iya Tarawa da ɗebewa da maimaitawada kuma rabawa duk da wannan na’urar lissafi da ya yi. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz shi ne wanda ya ƙirƙiro hanyar ajiyar abubuwa a cikin memory ko kuma register.

Ba wannan kaɗai ba ne gudunmuwar da Leibniz ya bada ba. shi ne wanda ya samo hanyar da ake iya yin amfani da binary code, wacce ita ce hanya guda da ake iya amfani da ita wurin gabatar abubuwa a cikin na’urori da muke amfani da su wanda suke amfani da tsarin 0 da 1. Koda yake Leibniz bai samu damar yin wannan ilimin a cikin na’urarsa ba, amma dai ya samar da wannan tunani ga dimbin jama’a.

Bayan rasuwar Leibniz da wurin ƙarni guda, a cikin shekarar 1854 George Boolean [1815-1864] ya yi amfani da wani tunani ya ƙiƙiro wani sabon lissafa wanda ake kira da Boolean Algebra a kwamfutocin zamani, tsarin binary code da Boolean Algebra ana amfani da su wurin sanya na’ura ta yanke hukunci a sauƙaƙe ta hanyar kwatanta tsakanin jerin 0 da 1 masu yawa.

Da shi abacus da na’urar lissafi da leibniiz suka ƙirƙiro abu daya daga cikinsu daya cancanci a kirashi da komfiyuta (computer) .

Calculator

Calculator wata na’ura ce da mutane suke amfani da ita wurin yin lissafi cikin hanzari, amma kuma tana buƙatar sai ɗan adam ya sarrafata. Amma ita komfiyuta (computer) wata na’ura ce wacce take sarrafa kanta da kanta, ba tare da taimakon dan adam ba, ta hanyar amfani da jerin waɗansu umurni da aka ajiye su a cikin kwakwalwarta wanda ake kira da shirye-shiye [program].

Idan ma akwai wanda za a iya cewar ya kwatanta amfani da waɗannan fasahar guda biyu, kamar yadda ya kamata sai shahararren mutumin ƙasar ingila masanin lissafi wanda ake kiran shi da Charles Babbage (1791 – 1871) wanda ake danganta shi da baban komfiyuta. Charles ya ƙirƙiri komfiyuta ko na’urar yin lissafi wacce take yin aiki saɓanin yadda ‘yan baya su ke yi.

Shi ne wanda a lokacin ya ƙirƙiri na’urar lissafi wanda take da wurin zuba masa saƙo

Browse
sannan kuma take da wurin fitar da sakamako [output] sannan kuma take da wurin ajiyar wannan sako kafin ya fitar da amsarshi [memory], irin dai fasahar da ake yin amfani da ita a na’urorin wannan lokacin. Sai dai wani abin takaici shi ne, Charles Babbage bai samu ganin ko daya daga cikin manyan kwamfutocin da ya yi tunanin ƙirƙiro su ba, sakamakon gajiya da gwamnatin kasar Ingila ta yi a wancan lokacin na ci gaba da tallafa wa wannan aiki nashi.

Da farko dai, gwamnatin ingila ta bashi tallafin fam dubu goma sha bakwai (17,000) wanda a wancan lokacin ba ƙaramin kuɗaɗe ba ne. To, lokacin da Babbage ya nemi da sake ƙara mishi wannan kuɗi, domin irin na’urar da yake son ya ƙirƙira tana buƙatar dubunnan ƙarafan gargare, sai gwamnatin wannan lokacin ta karaya, ba ta sake taimaka mashi da komai ba.

Babbage ya yi sa’ar samun taimako daga wata ƙwararriyar masaniyar lissafi, Augusta Ada Byron [1815-1852], Countess of lovelace, diya ga wani mawaki Lord Byron. Lovelace wacce ta nuna matuƙar sha’awarta ga wannan aiki da Babbage ya fara, ya sanya ta taimaka masa har ya iya yin wannan na’ura ta farko wadda ake amfani da surkullen rubutu [programming] domin a ba ta (ita na’urar) umarnin yi ko bari.

Taimaka wa Babbage yin wannan na’urar, ta amfani da programming ya sanya ake danganta (Ada Lovelace) da ita farkon programmer a bayan ƙasa. Amma bayan mutuwar Charles Babbage kadan ne daga cikin wannan aikin nasa ya tsira.

Koda yake, wannan na’urar da Charles Babbage ya yi ƙoƙarin ya ƙirƙiro, ya so a yi amfani da shi ne wurin shirya Atilare ta yaƙi domin samun dai-dai to wurin duk wani abin da aka harba da ita ta same shi. Amma wuraren karshen ƙarni na sha tara (19th century) tuni an samu masana da yawa waɗanda suka sami nasarar ƙera na’ura ko injin da zai yi lissafi.

Farkon na’urar lissafi da ke yin aiki na zahiri da aka fara ƙirƙira a wannan duniya (practical calculator) shi ne wanda masanin ƙididdigar nan Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) wanda ya kira wannan na’ura da Tabulator, wanda ya kirkiro ta domin ta taimaka masa i wurin ƙididdigar adadin mutanen ƙasar Amurka (census).

A wancan lokacin, ana ƙididdigar jama’a duk bayan shekaru goma ne, amma a shekarar 1880, yawan mutanen da su ke ƙasar Amurka ya yi yawa sosai, saboda shigowar baƙi ya kai da ba za a iya amfani da ƙididdiga ta hannu ba wanda zai iya ɗaukar watanni bakwai ko rabin shekara ba tare da an kammala ba.

Daga cikin waɗanda ba za a iya mantawa da su ba a harkar ƙirƙira ko kuma samar da hanya a kan komfiyuta shi ne Alan (1912-1954) wanda kwararren masanin lissafi ne daga Cambridge, wanda shi ne ya fito da ilimin yadda komfiyuta za ta iya sarrafa bayanai dake cikinta.

Wannan ilimi da Alan ya samar ya kawo sauyi mai yawa ta ɓangaren yadda jama’a ke kallon na’ura, da wannan dalilin ne ma mutane su ke danganta shi a matsayin wanda ya samar da komfiyuta (computer) ta zamani (Modern Computer).

Alan ya bayar da gudunmuwa mai yawa a cikin harkar komfiyuta, misali lokacin yaƙin duniya na biyu ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wurin ƙirƙira komfiyuta, wacce ake kiranta da Code Breaking Machine wanda ake ganin ya ba wa ƙasar Ingila asa a filin daga, sannan ya bayar da gudunmuwa wurin ƙirƙira wata computer da ake kiranta da Automatic Computing Engine, da wata Colossus da Manchester/Ferranti Mark l.

Domin karanta cikakken bayani a kan Farkon komfiyuta Zamani danna nan

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