Tarihin Samuwar Shafukan Sada Zumunta

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MA’ANAR SHAFUKAN SADA ZUMUNTA

A mahangar kimiyyar sadarwa ta zamani, idan aka ce Social Network ana nufin dandalin shaƙatawa da yin abota.

Amma Farfesa Kerric Harvey ya bayar da gamammen ta’arifi ya ce “Kalmar Social Media(SM), Social Networking Sites (SNSs), Social Media Websites (SMWs) na nufin wasu shafuka ko manhajoji da ake amfani da su a yanar gizo, domin sadarwa tsakanin mutane da musayar ra’ayoyi ta hanyar sauti (voice notes), hotuna daskararru (still images) da masu motsi (videos) ko rariyar likau (hypertext links).

TARIHI DA SAMUWAR SHAFUKAN SADA ZUMUNTA

Tun bayan samuwar telegraph (1792), telephone (1876), radio (1891), a ƙarni na 20 bayan samuwa da yaɗuwar manyan kwamfutoci (super computers) 1940s masana kimiyyar na’ura mai aiki da ƙwaƙwalwa suka himmatu wajen faɗaɗa nazari da bincike da haɓaka wannan fasaha wadda har ta kai ga rikiɗa da haihuwar fasahar Intanet a shekarar 1969. Bayan sadarwa ta Imel 1971. An fara farkon hirar ga-ni-ga-ka ta Internet Relay Charts (IRC) ne a shekarar 1988.

Haka dai wannan siffa ta ci gaba da yaɗuwa, tare da canza akalar sadarwa.
Shafin sada zumunta na farko a tarihi shi ne Six Degrees, wanda aka fara amfani da shi a watan (Mayu 1997), wannan shafi yana bai wa masu ta’ammuli da su damar ɗora bayanan rayuwarsu, matakan karatu da sunayen abokansu (Profiles) da kuma yin abota da wasu mutanen ta wannan shafi.

Daga nan sai Open Diary (Oct, 1998), Live Journal (April, 1999), Ryze (Oct.2001), Friendstar (March, 2002). Daga nan aka ƙirƙiri blogging. Shafuka irin su MySpace (Aug, 2003), LinkedIn (May, 2003), hi5 (June, 2003) da Orkut (Jan,2004) sun samu shahara da karɓuwa a wannan lokaci.

A farkon ƙarni na 21, Photobucket (May, 2003) ya bayyana da Flicker (Feb, 2004) waɗanda suke bada damar karɓa da tura saƙonnin hotuna, akwai tashar yaɗa hotuna masu motsi (videos), wato YouTube ya faso a (Feb, 2005). Sai ƙaraminsu babbansu facebook (Feb, 2014) da majalissar dattijai da mahankalta wato Twitter (July, 2005) su biyu sun zama wanzazzun shafukan sada zumunta masu dogon zamani da shahara a sararin yanar gizo.

Daga baya an samu shafuka irin su Tumblr (Feb, 2007), Marigayi Google+ (July, 2011), Spotify (April, 2006), Bebo (March 2005), Foursquare (March, 2009), Pinterest (Jan, 2010), Instagram (Oct, 2010), duk sun fito da irin nasu keɓantattun salon na sadarwa, sai kuma dan autansu WhatsApp (Jan, 2009).

A yau waɗannan manhajoji da shafuka sun yi yawan da zai alamta mana abubuwa barkatai da za su iya aukuwa a ƙarnuka masu zuwa.

NAU’IKA DA RABE-RABEN SHAFUKAN SADA ZUMUNTA

A matakin farko za mu iya kasa shafukan sada zumunta kashi uku ta fuskar damarmakin da suke bayarwa. Akwai waɗanda suke tura saƙonni da dukkan nau’ikansa (Post-based Social Media) kamar Myspace, facebook da Twitter. Akwai waɗanda aka gina su a kan karɓa da tura hotuna (Image-based social media) misalin Instagram, snapchat da tumblr. Akwai kuma wadanda suke kamar gidajen talabijin (Video-based social media) kamar vime, vimeo da youtube.

Akwai kuma masu keɓantattun manufofi da aka ƙirƙira domin wasu keɓantattun mutane, misali; shafukan da suka keɓanci tambayoyi da amsa a kan komai (Quora), na ƙwararru (professionals) kamar LinkedIn, daliban kimiyya ScienceStax, karatu da littattafai goodreads, aNobii, librarything, shelfari, wattpad, weRead, akwai wanda ya keɓanci ‘yan kasuwa talkbiznow, na ‘yan bai wa masu ƙwaƙwalwa (talented) ibibo, akwai kuma shaiɗanun shafukan da suke na musamman ga masu LGBT11 Sannan akwai waɗanda sun keɓanta da wasu ƙasashe kamar wechat ga ‘yan China, Vkontakte (VK) ga ‘yan Russia, Taringa ga ‘yan Latin America da sauransu.

MUHIMMAN ƘIDIDDIGAR ALƘALUMA GAME DA SHAFUKAN SADA ZUMUNTA

Adadin masu amfani da yanar gizo a duniya sun kai 4, 536, 248, 808 a cikin mutane 7, 716, 223, 209 da suke rayuwa a faɗin duniya. A nahiyar Afrika mutane 522, 809, 480 ke cin moriyar fasahar intanet a cikin mazaunanta 1, 320, 038, 716 wato kaso 39.6 % kenan. Daga tsakiyar shekarar 2019 a cikin mazauna Nijeriya 200, 963, 599 kimanin miliyan 113.3 ke shawagi a intanet.

A rahoton The Global State of Digital sun rawaito cewa awanni uku da mintuna 17 shi ne matsakaicin lokutan da ‘yan Nijeriya suke yi a shafukan sada zumunta.
A tarayyar Nijeriya, manhajar WhatsApp, ita ce a kan gaba da kaso 85% na masu amfani da shafukan sada zumunta, sai dandalin Facebook mai kaso 78% sai Instagram 57% sannan YouTube 53%.

A riwayar rahoton Maryam Mohsin daga cibiyar bincike ta PEW RESEARCH CENTER a cikin shafukan sada zumunta waɗanda suka fi yawan mahalarta su ne a duniya gaba ɗaya Facebook (Biliyan 2.4), WhatsApp (Biliyan 1.6), YouTube (Biliyan 1.9), Instagram (Biliyan 1.6), WeChat (Biliyan 1.1), Tumblr (Miliyan 555), Snapchat (Miliyan 190), Twitter (Miliyan 330), MySpace (Miliyan 15), Pinterest (Miliyan 265), Reddit (Miliyan 542), Telegram (Miliyan 100), Viber (Miliyan 249), Skype (Miliyan 300) sai kuma Marigayi G+ (Miliyan 111).

DALILAN BUNKASAR SHAFUKAN SADA ZUMUNTA

Samuwa, yaɗuwa da bunƙasar dandalin abota yana da ban al’ajabi matuƙa, domin ba matasa kaɗai ya game ba, har da manya, tsofaffi da ƙananan yara ba, ba ‘yan birni kaɗai ya game ba, har ‘yan karkara, ƙauyuka da rigage, kai hatta makiyaya da nakasassu.

Dalilan bunƙasa da haɓakar sa kuwa, ba nesa suke ba, za mu taƙaita a kan ambaton wasu sabubba kamar guda biyar

a).Ingantuwar hanyoyin gina manhajar sadarwa tsakanin gidan yanar sadarwa zuwa wani gidan

b).Yawaitar wayoyin hannu

c).Sauri da sauƙin hanyoyin rijista da kuma sarrafa su

d).Bunkasar hanyoyin kasuwanci da nau’ikan su a giza-gizan sadarwa na Intanet

e). Ingantuwar tsarin sadarwa na Intanet a ƙasashe masu tasowa

f). Saukin sadarwa, mu’amala, farashi, tattalin kuɗi, lokaci da kuma

g).Yaduwar nau’ikan auratayya tsakanin kwamfuta, wayoyin hannu da sauran na’urorin sadarwa (network convergence)

Domin karanta amfanin shafukan sada zumunta danna koren rubutu

labarin da ya wuceAsalin Samuwar Intanet
Labarin na GabaYadda Ake Tsaftace Baki

YI SHARHI

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