Nazarin Wasu Dokokin Tsarin Sautin Harshen Hausa

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Nazarin wasu dokokin tsarin sautin harshen hausa

Tsakure:Ilmin tsarin sauti, fanni ne na ilmin kimiyyar harshe.Wanda ya shafi bayani a kan yadda harshe yake tsara sautukansa waje guda, domin su bayar da ma’ana. Sauran takwarorin nasa kuwa, sun haɗa da: Ilmin furuci da ilmin ƙirar kalma da ilmin ginin jumla da kuma ilmin ma’ana. Manufar wannan takarda ita ce yin nazarin dokokin tsarin sautin harshen Hausa guda takwas(8), da suka haɗa da: Dokar madanganci da Nasaba da Naso da Ganɗantawa da Kore ganɗantawa da Leɓɓantawa da kore leɓɓantawa da kuma Gajarta wasali. Za a yi hakan ne tare da kawo misalai masu gamsarwa, inda za a bi dokokin ɗaya bayan ɗaya a tattaro su a tara su wuri guda domin sauƙaƙawa masu nazari. Karance-karancen littattafai da muqalu da kundayen bincike su ne hanyoyin da aka bi aka tattaro bayanan gudanar da wannan takarda. An ɗora aikin ne a kan Mazhabar Gamayyar Tasrifi da Tsarin Sautin Hausa wacce Sani (2011) ya samar.

Muhimman kalmomi: Ganɗantawa da Naso da Leɓantawa da Madanganci da kuma Tsarin Sauti.

Abstract
Phonology is a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of speach system. Its remaining parts include: Phonetics, Morphplogy, Syntax and Sementics. The aims of this paper is to study the eigth Hausa rules formalism, which comprises: Referential rules, Assimilation, Palatalization, De-palatalization, Libialization, De-libialization and Vowel Shortning. In addition to that, much examples will be listed under each rule, so as to facilitate better understanding. This work will be usefull to both students and researchers, Reading books, Journals and thesis are the methods used in this research. The theory used in this research is the theory of Morpho-Phonology founded by Sani (2011).

Key Words: Palatalization, Assimilation, Libialization, Referential and Phonology.

Gabatarwa
Masana da dama sun yi aikace-aikace a kan abin da ya jivinci ilimin furuci da na tsarin sauti. Alal misali: Hyman (1975) da Bello (1992) da Bello (2016) da Bello (2017) da Bello (2018) da Sani (2007) da Sani (2010) da Sani (2011) da Sani (2013) da Sani (2005) da Saleh ( 2018) da Saleh (2018) da Omachonu (2011) da Newman (2000) da sauransu.
Tabbas idan za a jibi sai an bi ta gobe, ke nan idan za a yi maganar ilimin sauti ya kyautu a san mece ce kwayar sauti. Dangane da haka kuwa qwayar sauti iri biyu ce rak: akwai qwayar sauti na baqi misali: /b/,/t/, /k/, /g/, /k/. da kuma qwayar sautin wasali misali: /a/, /i/, /u/.
Tsarin sauti a xaya bangaren kuwa, yana nufin fannin nazarin kimiyyar harshe wanda ya shafi bayani a kan yadda harshe yake tsara sautukansa waje guda su samar da ma’ana. (Saleh, 2018:115). fanni ne kuma da yake nazartar irin sauye-sauye da ake samu a dalilin haxuwar sauti da sauti. Har wa yau, tsarin sauti yana da fanni wanda ake nazartar hawa da saukar murya, wanda aka fi sani da suna karin sauti. Tsarin sauti bai tsaya a nan ba, domin kuwa hatta tashin murya ana nazartarsa a qarqashinsa da sauran batutuwa, (db Sani, 2010 da 2011). A taqaice, tsarin sauti yana nazarin siffofin sauti mabambanta da kuma dangantakarsa da waninsa a yayin da suka haxu a cikin magana mai ma’ana. Kamar yadda binciken nan ya nuna, dokokin tsarin sauti sun bambanta daga harshe zuwa harshe, wannan ba ya rasa nasaba da kasancewar kowane harshe na duniya yana da nasa tsari daban da na xan’uwansa. Daga cikin dokokin tsarin sautin da harshen Hausa yake da su akwai: Dokar madanganci da Nasaba da Naso da Ganxantawa da Kore ganxantawa da Levantawa da kore levantawa da kuma Gajarta wasali. Nazarin waxannan dokoki su wannan aiki ya sa gaba, inda za a bayyana yadda suke tare da misalai.
Alamomin da ake amfani da su wajen dokar tsarin sauti.
aik. aikatau verb
jm. jam’i plural
nj. namiji masculine
tm. tamata feminine
B1 Baqin farko
Bw levantaccen baqi
Bj ganxantaccen baqi
\ karin sauti qasa low tone
/ karin sauti sama high tone
^ karin sauti faxau falling tone
l tashin sauti stress
+ akwai there
– babu without
## kalma word
yana sauyawa zuwa ……….. change to …….
/ ____a bigire kafin…………. before phonetic environment
{ } qwayar ma’ana morpheme
/ / Qirar voye underlying structure
[ ] Sautin furuci articulatory sound
[ ] Qirar sarari surface structure
: dogon wasali long vowel
(Sani, 2011:viii-ix)
_______________
3.0 Dokokin Tsarin Sauti
A nan za a duba wurare daban-daban inda dokokin tsarin sauti suke taka irin tasu muhimmiyar rawa yayin aiwatar da sautukan Hausa. Misali:
3.1 Madanganci
A nahawun Hausa dai, ‘madanganci’ shi ne (-n) da (-r), wanda ake xafa wa kalmar ‘suna’ ko ‘sifa’ don fayyace wannan kalma. Ana amfani da (-n) a qarshen kalmar suna jinsin namiji, ko a qarshen kalmar suna jam’i. Xafin (-r) kuwa, ana yu wa kalmar suna ne jinsin mace.
Daga cikin ire-iren madangancin nan, nau’in {-n} na jinsin namiji tare da jam’i, shi ne alqibilarmu a nan. A Daidaitacciyar Hausa, lokacin da aka xafa wa suna (-n), wato wannan madanganci, lafazi da hanxantawa [ŋ ] ake yi wa kalmar in dai babu wani abu da ya biyo bayanta, misali
/ra:mi:/ + {-n} [ Xafin madanganci ]
ra:mi: (qirar voye)
ra:min (Gajarta wasali)
[ra;miŋ ] (Hanxantaw/ qirar sarari/
lafazi)
Haka kuma
/duma:/ + {-n} (Xafin madanganci
duma:n (Qirar Voye)
duman (Gajarta wasali)
[dumaŋ ] (Hanxantawa/ Qarar
sarari/Lafazi)
Kamar yadda aka gani, a misalin a), ga Kalmar /ra:mi:/ daga vanagaren tsarin sauti da {-n}, madanganci, daga vangaren tasrifi a jere. Da suka haxu, sai dokar gajarta wasali a rufaffiyar gava ta yi aiki, daga qarshe kuma lafazin nan na madagnaganci ya koma da ma wannan lafazi na madanganci {-n} zuwa [ŋ ]. a qarshen magana, shi ne sauyin da muke jawo hankali a kai. A misali na b) kuma, duk lamarin xaya ne. Haxuwar kalmar /duma:/ da {-n}, ta haifar da sauyin lafazin {-n} zuwa [ŋ ]. wato lafazi da hanxantawa.
Don haka, dokar hanxantawa da take sauya {-n} zuwa [ŋ ] a qarshen magana a Daidaitacciyar Hausa za a nuna ta a sauqaqe, kamar haka:
+baqi
+hanci
leve + hanxa ##.
ganxa
hanxa

Fashin baqi: Wannan doka tana bayani ne kamar haka, a sami baqi xan hanci marar kewayar levva marar furucin ganxa ko hanxa, sai ya sami kansa da furucin hanxa a qarshen kalma. A samu qwayar sauti /n/ tana komawa [ŋ ] a qarshen kalma.
3.2 Nasaba
Nasaba a nahawu, sashen suna ne wanda ya qunshi ‘suna’ da ‘suna’, ko ‘wakilin suna’, waxanda kuma ‘ mahaxin {-n / -na} ko {-r /ta} ya haxa su ( Galadanci: 1976). Ana kuma kiran mahaxi{-n / -r} gajere {-na/ -ta} kuma dogo. Nasaba mai mahaxi{-n / -na} ta danganci jinsin namiji da jam’i, mai mahaxi {-r /ta} kuwa, jinsin tamata, kamar a waxannan misalai:
gidan Bala / gida na Bala
gidansa / gida nasa
gidan haya / gida na haya
tufafin Bala / tufafi na Bala
tufafinsa / tufafi nasa

tufafin saqi / tufafi na saqi
rigar Bala / riga ta Bala
rigarsa / riga tasa
rigar siliki / riga ta siliki
Abin da ya shafe mu a nan shi ne, nasaba gajeren mahaxi {-n / -r}misali:
3.2.1 Mahaxin Nasaba gajere {-n }
A wannan qaramin sashe, za a duba mahaxin nasaba{-n }dangane da sauye-sauyen Gamayyar Tasarifi da tsarin sauti da ke shafar su. A nan dai tsarin sauti ke tasiri a kan tasarifi, duba waxannan misalai:
Sarkin Bauchi
Sarkin Kano
Sarkin Yawuri
/sark ji:/ +{-n } /bautʃi/ (Dafin mahaxi)
sark ji:n bautʃi (qirar boye)
sark jin bautʃi (gajarta wasali)
sark ji:m bautʃi (levantawa)
[sark ji:n bautʃi] ( Qirar sarari/Lafazi)

/sark ji:/ +{-n } /kano:/ (Dafin mahaxi)
sark ji:n kano: (qirar boye)
sark jin kano (gajarta wasali)
sark ji:ŋ kano: (levantawa)
[sark ji:ŋ kano:] ( Qirar sarari/Lafazi)

/sark ji:/ +{-n } /ja:wuri/ (Dafin mahaxi)
sark ji:n ja:wuri (qirar boye)
sark jin ja:wuri (gajarta wasali)
sark ji:л ja:wuri (levantawa)
[sark ji:л ja:wuri] ( Qirar sarari/Lafazi)

Dokar nason baqin hanci

/n/ [m ]/ -baleve
[ŋ]/ – bahanxe
[л]/ -baganxe
Fashin baqi: Idan aka sami Qwayar sautin /n/ a qarshen kalma ana yi mata lafazin [m] idan kalmar dake biye da ita ta fara da harafi baleve. Sannan ana yi mata lafazin [ŋ ] idan kalmar gabanta ta fara da baqi bahanxe, kuma ana yi mata lafazin [л ] kafin baganxe.
3.2.2 Mahaxin Nasaba {-r}
A nan za mu duba waxannan misalai:
hular dara
hular bala
hular saqi

/hu:la:/ +{-r} /dara:/ (Dafin mahaxi)
hu:la:r dara: (qirar boye)
hu:lar dara: (gajarta wasali)
hu:lad dara: (Cikakken naso)
[hu:lad dara:] ( Qirar sarari/Lafazi)

b)
/hu:la:/ +{-r} /bala:/ (Dafin mahaxi)
hu:la:r bala: (qirar boye)
hu:lar bala: (gajarta wasali)
hu:lad bala: (Cikakken naso)
[hu:lad bala:] ( Qirar sarari/Lafazi)

/hu:la:/ +{-r } /saq ji:/ (Dafin mahaxi)
hu:la:r saq ji: (qirar boye)
hu:lar saq ji (gajarta wasali)
hu:las saqji: (Cikakken naso)
[hu:lassaq ji:] ( Qirar sarari/Lafazi)

3.3 Dokar cikakken naso
B B1 ##- ##.
(+gare )
Fashin baqi: Qwayar sauti {r } tana rikixewa zuwa baqin farko (B1) na kalmar da ke biye da ita.

3.4 Ganxantawa
‘Ganxantawa’ suna ne da aka tsago daga jikin aikatau ‘ganxanta’, wanda yake nufin qara furucin ganxa (xaga gaban harshe ya doshi ganxa tsattsaura), ga baqin da ba baganxe ba bisa wasu sharuxxa (Sani: 2005). Ita dai ganxantawa iri biyu ce, kamar haka:
3.4.1 Nau’in gamo-da-kasawa:
Wannan nau’i na ganxantawa, kamar yadda sunan ke nuni, yana faruwa a kowane bigire na kalma, babu shamaki. Ana samun sa a ko’ina cikin kalma, ana samu kuma a wajen kalma, wato a kan iyakar qwayar ma’ana. don haka a nan za mu duba aukuwar wannan ganxantawa ne a kan iyakar qwayar ma’ana.
Mu soma duba waxannan misalai:
hankaka
Katanga
baqo
Yanzu, mu nazarci matakan da kalmomin nan ke hawa suna sauyawa zuwa jam’i.
/hanka:ka:/ + {-i} (Xafin jam’i)
hanka:ka:i: (Qirar voye)
hanka:ki: (shafe wasali)
hanka:k j i: (Ganxantawa)
[hàŋkà:kj i:] (Qirar sarari/ Lafazi)

/katanga:/ + {-i} (Xafin jam’i)
katanga:i: (Qirar voye)
katangi: (shafe wasali)
katang j i: (Ganxantawa)
[kàtàŋgj i:] (Qirar sarari/ Lafazi)

/ba:qwo:/ + {-i} (Xafin jam’i)
ba:qwo:i: (Qirar voye)
ba:qi: (safe wasali)
ba:qji: (Ganxantawa)
[bà:qji:] (Qirar sarari/ Lafazi)

Dokar ganxantawa:

+baqi
+hanxa +wasali
-leve +ganxa +gaba
-ganxa
Fashin baqi: Baqi xan hanxa, maras furucin leve, maras furucin ganxa, yana ganxancewa yayin da ya gabaci wasalin gaba.

3.4.2 Ganxantawa mai dabaibayi
A tasa fahimtar Saleh (2018), cewa ya yi “Wannan ya shafi wasu daga cikin hanqawa da kuma leve-hanxa a lokacin da suka gabaci wasalin gaba / i, i:, e, e:/. Baqaqen hanqawan sun haxa da / t, z, d,s/ leve-hanxa kuwa, shin ne /w/, inda sukan koma [tʃ,dz,dz,ʃ] da[j]”. misali:
Tilo Jam’i
/t/ [tʃ].
/mo:ta:/ /mo:to: tʃ:/
/z/ [dz]
/ka:za:/ [ka:dzi:]
/d/ [dz]
/gida:/ [gjida:dze:]
/s/ [ʃ]
/qu:sa:/ [qw u:so:ʃi:]

Dokar: / t,z.d,s/ su koma [tʃ,dz,dz,ʃ] za ta kasance kamar haka:
+baqi
+hanqa +wasali
-hamza +ganxa +gaba
+takurau

Ma’ana: Baƙi ɗan hanƙa mara furucin hamza, takurau, yana ganɗancewa yayin da ya gabaci wasalin gaba a kan iyakar ƙwayar kalma.

Leɓa-hanɗa /w/ wacce take komawa [j] kuwa, a Hausa ita ma akan same ta yayin jam’i ko sunantar da aikatau ko kuma sauya rukunin aikatau. misali:

Tilo Jam’i
/ vara:wo/ [vara:ji:]
/fatawa/ [fatawo:ji:]
/kjanwa:/ [kjaŋwo:ji:]
Har wa yau, /w/ yana komawa [j] yayin sunantar da sunan aiki a Hausa, kamar yadda aka samar da Kalmar [haji] daga /hawa/, wadda ita kuma kalmar [hawa] an same ta ne daga aikatau /hau/.
Shi ma wannan tsari an samar masa da doka, kamar haka:

-baqi
-wasali +ganxa +wasali
+kewaya -kewaya +gaba

Ma’ana: kinin wasali mai kewaya, yana ganxancewa idan ya gabaci wasalin gaba. Wani abin lura a nan shi ne, baya ga hanyoyin da aka zayyana a sama inda ake samun ganxantawa mai dabaibayi, akan same ta a wani lokaci, musamman wajen yin cikakken ninki da kuma sanya xafin {-e} mai nuna jam’i ( Abubakar; 1983:167).

Tilo Ninki (Qirar Voye) Jam’i (Qirar Sarari)
/sata/ sata+e # # sata + e [sa:tʃie sa: tʃie:]
/tʃizo/ tʃizo + e # # tʃizo+e [tʃiidze tʃiidze:]
/gada/ gado + e # # gado +e [gadze gadze:]
/rusa/ rusa + e # # rusa +e [ruʃe ruʃe:]
/ɽawa/ ɽawa + e # # ɽawa + e [ɽaje ɽaje:].
Kore Ganxantawa
A irin wannan kuma, akan sami ganxantawar sai ta kau sakamakon wani sharaxi da ya zo wanda ya tilasta hakan. Bari mu dubi waxannan kalmomi mu ga yadda ake kore ganxantawa, kamar haka:
Alhaji
Huje (aikatau)
Fushi
Haye (aikatau)
Hanci
Idan muka dubi baqaqen qarshen waxannan kalmomi za mu ga duk ‘yan ganxa ne. Wannan ganxantawar za ta kau kamar yadda za mu gani, kamar haka:
1./alhadz ii/ + (-ai) (xafin jam’i)
Alhadziiai (qirar voye)
Alhadzai (shafe wasali)
Alhazai (kore ganxantawa)
Alhazai (qirar sarari/lafazi)

/hudzee/ + (-aa) (xafin sunantawa)
Hudzeeaa (qirar voye)
Hudzaa (shafe wasali)
Hudaa (kore ganxantawa)
Huudaa (qirar sarari/lafazi)

fushii + (-aata) (xafin aikatau)
fushiiaata (qirar voye)
fush aata (shafe wasali)
fusaata (kore ganxantawa)
fusaata (qirar sarari/lafazi)

/hajee/ + (-aa) (xafin sunantawa)
Hajeeaa (qirar voye)
Hajaa (shafe wasali)
Hawaa (kore ganxantawa)
Hawaa (qirar sarari/lafazi)
/han tʃ ii / + (-unaa) (xafin jam’i)
Hantʃiiunaa (qirar voye)
Hantʃunaa (shafe wasali)
Hantunaa (kore ganxantawa)
Hantunaa (qirar sarari /lafazi)
Da farko, za mu kawo dokoki iri biyu; wato na sautukan /t /, /d / da kuma / / sanann mu kawo ta dokar /j/ da ban, don tasa dokar ta sha bambam da na sauran kamar haka:
Dokar ‘yan ganxa /t /, /d / da / /
+ baqi +wasali
+ganxa -ganxa -gaba
+takurau

Abin nufi shi ne a sami baqi xan ganxa kuma takurau, yakan koma ba xan ganxa ba idan ya faxa gabanin wasalin da ba na gaba ba.
Dokar /j/ kamar haka:

-baqi + kewaya + wasali
-wasali -ganxa -gaba
-kewaya

Wannan na nufin sautin ya zamo ba cikakken ba baqi ba ne kuma ba wasali ba ne kuma bashi da kewayar levva, yakan koma mai kewaya kuma ba xan ganxa ba idan ya faxa gabanin wasalin da ba xan gaba ba.

3.6 Levantawa
Levantawa tana nufin qara wa furucin baqi kewayen levva, kamar furucin /k, q, g/ zuwa [kw, qw, gw]. (db Newman: 2000:417). Wannan yana faruwa ne yayin da su waxannan baqaqe hanxawa suka gabaci wasulan qurya / o/, /o:/, /u/, /u:/. Levantawa tana iya kasancewa a kowane bigire na kalma, wato a cikin kalma ne ko kuma a kan iyakarta. Misali, ana samun levantawa wajen samar da jam’i, kamar haka:
Tilo _+ Xafi Jam’i
/?adaka/ +{-u:} [?adakwu:].
/dwo:ki:/ +{-una:} [dwo:kwuna:].
/dza:kji:/ +{-una:} [dza:kwuna:].
/masa:qa:/ +{-u} [masaqwu:].
/dangji:/ + {-ooB2ii} [dangwo:gji:].
/kwure:gje:/ +{-u} [kwure:gwu:].

Dokar levantawa za ta iya kasancewa kamar haka:
+baqi
+hanɗa
-ganɗa +kewaya +wasali
-kewaya +ƙurya

Ma’ana: A sami baƙi bahanɗe maras furucin ganɗa kuma maras kewayar laɓɓa, yana leɓancewa idan wasalin ƙurya ya gabace shi.

3.7 Kore Leɓantawa
A wannan yanayi kuma ba samar da leɓantawar ake yi ba, anan idan an sami kalma mai yanayin da ya haifar da leɓantawa, kamar a misalan da muka bayar na leɓantawa, to leɓantawar tashi take idan ta tsinci kanta a wani tsari na musamman. Ga misali:
Kadarkwo
Tsuntsu
Kalangwu
A waɗannan kalmomi mun ga inda wasulan ƙurya suka biyo ‘yan hanɗa wato /k, ƙ da g/ inda suka sanya su suka leɓance. A yanzu kuma leɓancewar ce za ta kau idan an yi musu ɗafi don jam’intar da su, kamar haka:

1.Kadar kwoo + – ai (xafin jam’i)
Kadar kwooai (qirar voye)
Kadarkai (shafe wasali)
Kadarkai (kore levantawa)
Kadarkai (qirar sarari/lafazi)

Tsunqwuu + – ajee (ɗafin jam’i)
Tsunqwuuajee (qirar ɓoye)
Tsunkwajee (shafe wasali)
Tsuntsaajee (kore leɓantawa)
Tswuntsaajee (ƙirar sarari /lafazi)

Kalangwuu + – ai (ɗafin jami)
Kalangwuuai (ƙirar ɓoye)
Kalangwai (shafe wasali)
Kalangai (kore leɓantawa)
Kalangai (ƙirar sarari/lafazi)

A misali na (1) da na (3) za mu ga inda xafin ‘ai’ ya kore leɓantawar ‘kwo’ a Kalmar ‘ kadarko’ da kuma na ‘gwu’ a kalmar ‘katangu’a misali na (3). Sai kuma a misali na (2) inda ɗafin ‘ajee’ ya kawo tashin leɓantawar /ƙwuu/ a kalmar ‘tsuntsuu’ ya koma tsuntsaaye. Ga dokar kore leɓantawa kamar haka:

+ baƙi + wasali
+ hanɗa (-kewaya) ____ – Ƙurya
-ganda
+kewaya

Fashin baƙi: A sami baƙi ɗan hanɗa, ba ɗan ganɗa ba mai kewayar leɓɓa. Zai koma marar kewayar leɓɓa, idan ya zo gabanin wasalin wanda ba na ƙyurya ba.

3.8 Dokar Gajarta Wasali
Dogon wasali yana zuwa ne a buɗaɗɗiyar gaɓa kawai, saɓanin yadda gajeren wasali kan zo a buɗaɗɗiya da rufaffiyar gaɓa. Don haka, a bisa tsarin gaɓar Hausa, gaɓa mai dogon wasali kan koma gajere don samar da rufaffiya. Mu dubi waɗannan misalai:

Hantsii
Hannuu

Sai mu dubi matakan da za a bi don samar da rufaffiyar gaɓa a waɗannan kalmomi, kamar haka:

/hantsii/ + /-n/ (ɗafin madanganci )
hantsiin (ƙirar ɓoye)
hantsin (shafe wasali)
hantsin (rufaffiyar gaɓa)
hantsin (ƙirar sarari/Lafazi)

/hannuu/ + /-n/ (ɗafin Madanganci )
Hannuun (ƙirar ɓoye)
Hannun (shafe wasali)
Hannun (rufaffiyar gaɓa)
Hannun (ƙirar sarari/lafazi)

Idan muka duba za mu ga yadda dogon wasalin /ii/ da /uu/ suka koma gajeru, wato ɗaya ya shafe ya bar ɗaya don sakamakon zuwan baƙin /n/ don samar da rufaffiyar gaɓa a Hausa.
Ga dokar kamar haka:

+Wasali
+dogo -dogo B B

Fashin baƙi: Abin nufi anan shi ne: a sami wasali, wasalin kuma ya zamo dogo wato guda biyu, zai koma ba dogo ba (gajere) idan ya sami kansa a tsakanin baƙi da baƙi.

Kammalawa

Kamar yadda aka gani wannan aiki wani hoɓɓasa ne na tattaro dokokin tsarin sautin Hausa da bayaninsu, tare da kawo misalai masu gamsarwa. A aikin an kawo dokokin tsarin sautin Hausa har guda takwas da suka haɗa da: Dokar madanganci da Nasaba da Naso da Ganɗantawa da Kore ganɗantawa da Leɓantawa da kore leɓantawa da kuma Gajarta wasali.

An yi haka ne domin sawwaƙawa manazarta, musamman na harshen Hausa. Daga qarshe an gano cewa harshen Hausa yana da dokoki da dama a cikinsa, waɗanda za a iya cewa ya zarce takwarorinsa, irin su Badanci da Ngas da Karekare da sauransu.

MANAZARTA
Bello, A. (1992). The Dialects Of Hausa.Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press.

Bello, A. (2016). Hausa Dialects and Distinctive Feature Analysis Phonology,
Morphology, Syntax and Lexicon. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press.

Bello, A. (2017), Hausa Tones. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press

Bello, A.(2018). Karin Sautin Hausa, Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press.

Galadanci, M.K.M. (1976). Introduction to Hausa Garamamr. Ibadan: Longman
Nigeria Limited.
Hyman, L.M. (1975). Phonology Theory And Analysis. New York: U.S.A
publishers
Newman, P. (2000). The Hausa Language: An Encyclpedic Reference Grammar.
New Haven and London: Yale University press.

Omachonu, G.S.(2011) NSUK TEXTS in General Linguistics. Keffi: Nasarawa
State University.
Sani M.A.Z. (2013). Maraka Yanki A Tsarin Sautin Hausa. Zaria: Jami’ar Ahmadu
Bello
Sani, M.A.Z. (2007). Tsarin Sauti Da Nahawun Hausa. Ibadan: UniversityPress
Plc.
Sani, M.A.Z. (2005). An Introductory Phonology of Hausa (with exercise). Kano:
Benchmark Publishers Limited.
Sani, M.A.Z. (2011). Gammayar Tasrifi Da Tsarin Sautin Hausa. Zaria: Ahmadu
Bello University Press Limited.
Sani, M.A.Z. (2010). Jagorar Nazarin Tsarin Sautin Hausa.(Haɗe Da Aikin Aji).
Zaria: Usman Al- Amin Publishers.
Saleh, A.A. (2018) “ Koyar Da Tsarin Sauti a kwalejojin Ilimi Na Ƙasa” a ciki
Book of reading, wanda School of Languages ta shirya Kwalejin Ilimi ta
Gashua, Yobe

labarin da ya wuceHalittar Lokaci Da Ƙarewarsa
Labarin na GabaKar Harshe Ya Gushe Ba Tare Da Ambaton Ubangiji Maɗaukaki Ba.